top header
top gradation HOME top vertical line top vertical line top vertical line top vertical line top vertical line top vertical line top vertical line menu gray
black line 2
menu gray tab More About ATI
menu blue ATI — Who We Are
white line
menu blue Contact ATI Courses
white line
menu blue List Of ATI Courses
white line
menu blue Attendees Testimonials
white line
menu blue The ATI FAQ Sheet
white line
menu blue Suggestions/Wait List
white line
menu blue New Courses
white line
menu blue Become an ATI Instructor
menu gray tab site resources
menu blue Acoustics & Sonar
white line
menu blue Rockets & Space
white line
menu blue GPS Technology
white line
menu blue ATI Blog
white line
menu blue ATI Space News
white line
menu blue ATI Site Map
white line
menu blue ATI Staff Tutorials
white line
menu blue ATI Sampler Page
white line
menu gray tab bar
menu gray tab courses
white line
menu blue Current Schedule
white line
menu blue Onsite Courses
white line
menu blue Register Online
white line
menu blue Request Brochure
white line
menu blue Free On-Site Price Quote
white line
menu blue Download Catalog
white line
menu blue Distance Learning
black line  

ATI's Underwater Acoustics 201 course

Share |


    Technical Training Short On Site Course Quote

    This two-day course explains how to translate our physical understanding of sound in the sea into mathematical formulas solvable by computers. It provides a comprehensive treatment of all types of underwater acoustic models including environmental, propagation, noise, reverberation and sonar performance models. Specific examples of each type of model are discussed to illustrate model formulations, assumptions and algorithm efficiency. Guidelines for selecting and using available propagation, noise and reverberation models are highlighted. Demonstrations illustrate the proper execution and interpretation of PC-based sonar models.

    Each student will receive a copy of Underwater Acoustic Modeling and Simulation (4th edition) by Paul C. Etter, in addition to a complete set of lecture notes.


    Paul C. Etter has worked in the fields of ocean-atmosphere physics and environmental acoustics for the past forty years supporting federal and state agencies, academia and private industry. He received his BS degree in Physics and his MS degree in Oceanography at Texas A&M University. Mr. Etter served on active duty in the U.S. Navy as an Anti-Submarine Warfare (ASW) Officer aboard frigates. He is the author or co-author of more than 200 technical reports, professional papers and books addressing environmental measurement technology, underwater acoustics and physical oceanography. Mr. Etter is the author of the textbook Underwater Acoustic Modeling and Simulation.

    Contact this instructor (please mention course name in the subject line)

What You Will Learn:
  • Principles of underwater sound and the sonar equation.
  • How to solve sonar equations and simulate sonar performance.
  • What models are available to support sonar engineering and oceanographic research.
  • How to select the most appropriate models based on user requirements.
  • Models available at APL.

Course Outline:

  1. Introduction. Nature of acoustical measurements and prediction. Modern developments in physical and mathematical modeling. Diagnostic versus prognostic applications. Latest developments in inverse-acoustic sensing of the oceans.

  2. Acoustical Oceanography. Distribution of physical and chemical properties in the oceans. Sound-speed calculation, measurement and distribution. Surface and bottom boundary conditions. Effects of circulation patterns, fronts, eddies and fine-scale features on acoustics. Biological effects.

  3. Propagation. Basic concepts, boundary interactions, attenuation and absorption. Ducting phenomena including surface ducts, sound channels, convergence zones, shallow-water ducts and Arctic half-channels. Theoretical basis for propagation modeling. Frequency-domain wave equation formulations including ray theory, normal mode, multipath expansion, fast field (wavenumber integration) and parabolic approximation techniques. Energy-flux models. Prediction uncertainties in complex environments. Model summary tables. Data support requirements. Specific examples.

  4. Noise. Noise sources and spectra. Depth dependence and directionality. Slope-conversion effects. Theoretical basis for noise modeling. Ambient noise and beam-noise statistics models. Pathological features arising from inappropriate assumptions. Model summary tables. Data support requirements. Specific examples.

  5. Reverberation. Volume and boundary scattering. Shallow-water and under-ice reverberation features. Theoretical basis for reverberation modeling. Cell scattering and point scattering techniques. Bistatic reverberation formulations and operational restrictions. Model summary tables. Data support requirements. Specific examples.

  6. Sonar Performance Models. Sonar equations. Monostatic and bistatic geometries. Model operating systems. Model summary tables. Data support requirements. Sources of oceanographic and acoustic data. Specific examples.

  7. Simulation. Review of simulation theory including advanced methodologies and infrastructure tools.

  8. Demonstrations. Guided demonstrations illustrate proper execution and interpretation of PC-based monostatic and bistatic sonar models.


This course is not on the current schedule of open enrollment courses. If you are interested in attending this or another course as open enrollment, please contact us at (410) 956-8805 or at and indicate the course name and number of students who wish to participate. ATI typically schedules courses with a lead time of 3-5 months. Group courses can be presented at your facility. For on-site pricing, request an on-site quote. You may also call us at (410) 956-8805 or email us at

Register Now Without Obligation