Why are Submarines Painted Black?

Video Clip: Click to Watch From an attack (SSN) to a fleet ballistic missile (SSBN) submarine, submarines are presented as a system of sub-systems A submarine is among the most technologically advanced machines ever built. The combination of computer technology, precision navigation, atmosphere regeneration, sensitive sonar equipment, sound quieting, nuclear power, and precision weapons make for […]
Seaman paint topside on the USS Oklahoma City (SSN 723)
Video Clip: Click to Watch
From an attack (SSN) to a fleet ballistic missile (SSBN) submarine, submarines are presented as a system of sub-systems
A submarine is among the most technologically advanced machines ever built. The combination of computer technology, precision navigation, atmosphere regeneration, sensitive sonar equipment, sound quieting, nuclear power, and precision weapons make for a most complex environment. Submarines are always deployed in the oceans around the world. Submarines are painted black to help them hide, as it is essential for submarines to hide while doing their job. The black color has proven to best help the submarine hide in the ocean. Whether you are a busy engineer, a technical expert or a project manager, you can enhance your understanding of complex systems, such as submarines, in a short time. Since 1984, the Applied Technology Institute (ATI) has provided leading-edge public short courses and onsite technical training to military personnel, as well as contractors. Why not take a short course? ATI short courses are less than a week long and are designed to help you keep your professional knowledge up-to-date. Our courses provide a practical overview of technologies which provide a strong foundation for understanding the issues that must be confronted in the use, regulation and development of these complex underwater systems. You will also become aware of the basic vocabulary essential to interact meaningfully with your colleagues. SUBMARINES AND ANTI-SUBMARINE WARFARE COURSE This three-day course presents the fundamental philosophy of submarine design, construction, and stability as well as the utilization of submarines as cost-effective warships at sea. A thumbnail history of waging war by coming up from below the surface of the sea relates prior gains—and, prior set-backs. Today’s submarine tasking is discussed in consonance with the strategy and policy of the US, and the goals, objectives, mission, functions, tasks, responsibilities, and roles of the US Navy. The foreboding efficacy of submarine warfare is analyzed referencing some enthralling calculations for its Benefits-to-Cost, in that Submarines Sink Ships! The submarine threat for the 21st century is discussed, posing such questions as: “Will diesel-electric submarines, as a cost-effective weapon for the Third World, be a significant threat to the national economies of other nations? Is shallow-water ASW in the littoral approaches to a coastline of a country embroiled in a Low-Intensity-Conflict a Mission-Essential-Need— for the US too? Will it still be best to sink a submarine while it is in port? So, where do We, the People… go from here? Herein the submarine is presented as a system in its self, thus an aim of the instructor is to clarify the essences of sub-system interfaces for engineers and scientists involved in testing or R&D for submarine systems. Attendees who in the past have worked with specific submarine sub-systems can consider this course as Continuing Education. Also, because of its introductory nature, this course will be enlightening to those just entering the field. Course Outline: • Thumbnail History of Warfare from Beneath the Sea: From a glass-barrel in circa 300 BC, to SSN 774 in 2004. • The Efficacy of Submarine Warfare — WWI and WWII: A Benefit/Cost Analysis to depict just how well Submarines Sink Ships! • Submarine Organization — and, Submariners: What is the psyche and disposition of those Qualified in Submarines, as distinguished by a pair of Dolphins? And, will new submariners be able to measure up to the legend of Steel Boats, and Iron Men! • Submarine Design & Construction: Fundamentals of Form, Fit, & Function, plus an analysis of ship-stability. • Principles of Sound in the Sea: A basis for a rudimentary primer on the “Calculus of Acoustical Propagation.” • Combat System Suite — Components & Nomenclature: In OHIO, LOS ANGELES, SEAWOLF, and VIRGINIA. • Submarines of the World — by Order of Battle: How Many, from Where. To do What, to Whom? • Antisubmarine Warfare — Our Number One Priority: For the USN, ASW is a combined-arms task for forces from above, on, and below the surface of the sea — inclusive of littoral waters — to engage The Enemy Below! This course is valuable to engineers and scientists in the research, development or testing of submarine systems, as well as newcomers to the field or those who want an overview Additional Resource: Capt. Wellborn’s article in PDF format, The Efficacy of Submarine Warships, provides a useful overview of the topic of submarine design, construction and deployment. ADVANCED UNDERSEA WARFARE COURSE Advanced Undersea Warfare (USW) covers the latest information about submarine employment in future conflicts. The course is taught by a leading innovator in submarine tactics. The roles, capabilities and future developments of submarines in littoral warfare are emphasized. The technology and tactics of modern nuclear and diesel submarines are discussed. The importances of stealth, mobility, and firepower for submarine missions are illustrated by historical and projected roles of submarines. Differences between nuclear and diesel submarines are reviewed. Submarine sensors (sonar, ELINT, visual) and weapons (torpedoes, missiles, mines, special forces) are presented. Advanced USW gives you a wealth of practical knowledge about the latest issues and tactics in submarine warfare. The course provides the necessary background to understand the employment of submarines in the current world environment. Advanced USW is valuable to engineers and scientists who are working in research, development or testing of submarine systems. It provides the knowledge and perspective to understand advanced USW in shallow water and regional conflicts. Course Outline: • Mechanics and Physics of Submarines — Stealth, mobility, firepower, and endurance. The hull – tradeoffs between speed, depth, and payload. The “Operating Envelope”. The “Guts” – energy, electricity, air, and hydraulics. • Submarine Sensors — Passive sonar. Active sonar. Radio frequency sensors. Visual sensors. Communications and connectivity considerations. Tactical considerations of employment. • Submarine Weapons and Off-Board Devices — Torpedoes. Missiles. Mines. Countermeasures. Tactical considerations of employment. Special Forces. • Historical Employment of Submarines — Coastal defense. Fleet scouts. Commerce raiders. Intelligence and warning. Reconnaissance and surveillance. Tactical considerations of employment. • Cold War Employment of Submarines — The maritime strategy. Forward offense. Strategic anti-submarine warfare. Tactical considerations of employment. • Submarine Employment in Littoral Warfare — Overt and covert “presence”. Battle group and joint operations support. Covert mine detection, localization and neutralization. Injection and recovery of Special Forces. Targeting and bomb damage assessment. Tactical considerations of employment. Results of recent out-year wargaming. • Littoral Warfare “Threats” — Types and fuzing options of mines. Vulnerability of submarines compared to surface ships. The diesel-electric or air-independent propulsion submarine “threat”. Vulnerability of submarines compared to surface ships. The “Brown-water” acoustic environment. Sensor and weapon performance. Non-acoustic anti-submarine warfare. Tactical considerations of employment. • Advanced Sensor, Weapon & Operational Concepts — Future submarine concepts. Strike, Anti-air and anti Theater Ballistic Missile weapons. Autonomous underwater vehicles and deployed off-board systems. Improved C-cubed. The blue-green laser and other enabling technology. Some unsolved issues of jointness. Course Outline, Samplers, and Notes This basic and advance course are designed for individuals involved in planning, designing, building, launching, and operating submarine systems. Determine for yourself the value of our courses before you sign up. View course sampler for Submarines and Anti-Submarine Warfare course here or the Advanced Undersea Warfare course here. http://www.aticourses.com/sampler/Submarines%20&%20their%20Combat%20Systems.pdf http://www.aticourses.com/sampler/Advanced_Undersea_Warfare.pdf After attending the course you will receive a full set of detailed notes from the class for future reference, as well as a certificate of completion. Please visit our website for more valuable information. About ATI and the Instructors Our mission here at ATI is to provide expert training and the highest quality professional development in space, communications, defense, sonar, radar, and signal processing. We are not a one-size-fits-all educational facility. Our short classes include both introductory and advanced courses. ATI’s instructors are world-class experts who are the best in the business. They are carefully selected for their ability to clearly explain advanced technology. Submarines and Anti-Submarine Warfare course Captain Ray Wellborn, USN (retired) served over 13 years of his 30-year Navy career in submarines. He has a BSEE degree from the US Naval Academy and a MSEE degree from the Naval Postgraduate School. He also has an MA from the Naval War College. He had two major commands at sea and one ashore: USS MOUNT BAKER (AE 34), USS DETROIT (AOE 4), and the Naval Electronics Systems Engineering Center, Charleston. He was Program Manager for Tactical Towed Array Sonar Systems and Program Director for Surface Ship and Helicopter ASW Systems for the Naval Sea Command in Washington, DC. After retirement in 1989, he was the Director of Programs, ARGOTEC, Inc.: and, oversaw the manufacture of advanced R&D models for large underwater acoustic projectors. From 1992 to 1996, he was a Senior Lecturer in the Marine Engineering Department of Texas A&M, Galveston. Since 1996, he has been an independent consultant for International Maritime Affairs. Advanced Undersea Warfare course Capt. James Patton (USN ret.) is President of Submarine Tactics and Technology, Inc. and is considered a leading innovator of pro- and anti-submarine warfare and naval tactical doctrine. His 30 years of experience includes actively consulting on submarine weapons, advanced combat systems, and other stealth warfare-related issues to over 30 industrial and government entities. While at OPNAV, Capt Patton actively participated in submarine weapon and sensor research and development, and was instrumental in the development of the towed array. As Chief Staff Officer at Submarine Development Squadron Twelve (SUBDEVRON 12), and as Head of the Advanced Tactics Department at the Naval Submarine School, he was instrumental in the development of much of the current tactical doctrine. Commodore Bhim Uppal former Director of Submarines for the Indian Navy and he is now a consultant with American Systems Corporation. He will discuss the performance and tactics of diesel submarines in littoral waters. He has direct experience onboard FOXTROT, KILO, and Type 1500 diesel electric submarines. He has over 25 years of experience in diesel submarines with the Indian Navy and can provide a unique insight into the thinking, strategies, and tactics of foreign submarines. He helped purchase and evaluate Type 1500 and KILO diesel submarines. Times, Dates, and Locations For the times, dates and locations of all of these two short courses, please access the ATI website here.

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